May, Might, Could, Can - Talking About Possibilities

source: Oxford Online English     2015年2月17日
The full version:
The English modal verbs 'can', 'could', 'may' and 'might' are used to talk about possibilities. For example:
- He can be really mean sometimes
- It could take us a few hours to finish this
- They might have missed the train
These sentences all express possibilities: things which are possible, but not certain. We often use these modal verbs to talk about things we are not sure about, or to give our opinions.

In this lesson, you can learn:
1) How to use 'can' to talk about general possibilities in the present or the future.
2) How to use 'could', 'may' and 'might' to talk about specific possibilities.
3) The difference between general and specific possibilities, and when you need to use 'can' or 'could/may/might'.
4) Talking about possibilities in the past using 'could have', 'may have' or 'might have'.
5) The two different meanings of 'could have'—'could have' can be used in two different ways to talk about possibilities in the past, depending on whether you know what happened or not.

We use the modal verb 'can' to talk about general possibilities—things which can be true at different times, or for different people. For example: "It can take two hours to get there by train." This means that it can take two hours every time, not just once.

You can use the verbs 'could', 'may' or 'might' to talk about specific possibilities—things which are only possible at one time. For example: "It could take you two hours to get there by train." This means it could take -you- two hours, not someone else. It's specific. In this sentence you could use any of the three modal verbs 'could', 'may' or 'might'—there's no difference in meaning.

To talk about possibilities in the past, use the modal verbs 'could', 'may', or 'might', plus 'have' plus a past participle. For example: "I don't know where they are—they could have missed the train." In this sentence, you can use any of the verbs 'may', 'might' or 'could', as before.

An introduction to modal verbs:
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