Difference between the prepositions IN and ON

source: Learn English with Let's Talk    2014年2月28日

Often people are confused with similar prepositions particularly the prepositions IN and ON. More often than not, either IN or ON can be grammatically correct. It entirely depends what you really mean in your statements.
Here are some few guidelines on how to use these two most commonly misused prepositions:

# It is advisable to use IN when you are indicating a position for spaces with limitations. IN is used to convey that something is contained or inside. For example,
- The bee is in the beehive.
- The mail in the mailbox.
- The file is in the disk.

# Alternatively, ON is used to denote a position for surfaces or a position just above or outside an area. Example,
- The book is placed on the table.
- Charlie sat on the stool.
- Jane had a tattoo on his arm.

# IN is used to denote a moment enclosed in time. It is therefore used with other parts of the day, with months, with years, with seasons. Some examples of these are,
- I like to drink coffee in the morning.
- Andreaìs wedding is on October.
- A lot of terrorist activities happened in 2001.
- The flowers will bloom in spring.

# ON is used with days and dates. Also, it may be used in special parts of the day and special holidays. Distinctively, ON is used when you do not enclose something — time included ñ it is with relative specificity.
- I'll see you on Friday!
- My retirement is effective on June 23.
- The event happened on the morning of January 14.
- We look for colourful eggs on Easter Sunday.

# ON is used with street names. Conversely, IN is used with names of cities, towns, provinces, states, and countries.
- I'm on Elm street, meet me here Freddie.
- Jiu-jitsu is big in Brazil.
- There are so many celebrities in California!

# Summary:
1. IN is used when you are referring something enclosed by limitations while using IN is relatively specific and does not denote anything enclosed.
2. IN is used to denote a location of something inside a space while on generally, denotes something above a surface or within proximity.
3. Whether it is used with place or time, normally, IN is general as compared to the specific implications of ON.

# more relevant grammar videos: prepositions